مواد ڏانھن ٽپ ڏيو

بيلجيم

کليل ڄاڻ چيڪلي، وڪيپيڊيا مان
(بيلجيئم کان چوريل)
سلجھائپ صفحن جي لاءِ معاونت نظر ھيٺ مضمون the country تي آهي. other uses بيلجيم (سلجھائپ) ڏسو.
Kingdom of Belgium

  • Koninkrijk België  (ٻولي؟)
  • Royaume de Belgique  (French)
  • Königreich Belgien  (ٻولي؟)
Flag of Belgium
{{{coat_alt}}}
جھنڊو Coat of arms
شُعار: 'Eendracht maakt macht  (ٻولي؟)
L'union fait la force  (French)
Einigkeit macht stark  (ٻولي؟)
ترانو: 
La Brabançonne
(انگريزي ٻولي: "The Brabantian")
Location of Belgium (dark green)
گادي جو هنڌ Brussels
50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350
سڀ کان وڏو شهر capital
دفتري ٻوليون
نسلي گروھ (2022[1])
مذهب (2020[2])
مقامي آبادي
حڪومت Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[3]
• Monarch
Philippe
Alexander De Croo
مقننه Federal Parliament
Senate
Chamber of Representatives
Independence from the Netherlands
• Declared
4 October 1830
19 April 1839
پکيڙ
• جملي
[اوزا تبديل: invalid number] (136th)
• پاڻي (%)
0.71 (2015)[6]
آبادي
• 2023 اندازو
سانچو:IncreaseNeutral 11,697,557[7] (82nd)
•  گھاٽائي
376 /km2 (973.8 /sq mi) (22nd)
جِي ڊي پي (مساوي قوت خريد ) 2023 لڳ ڀڳ
• ڪل
$769.682 billion[8] (37th)
• في سيڪڙو
$65,813[8] (20th)
جِي. ڊي. پي  (رڳو نالي ۾ ) 2023 لڳ ڀڳ
• ڪل
$627.511 billion[8] (23rd)

بيلجيم (Belgium؛ Belgique)، سرڪاري نالو بيلجيم جي شهنشاهيت (Kingdom of Belgium) اتر۔اولھہ یورپ ۾ ھڪ ملڪ آهي. اتر ۾ نيدر لئنڊس، ڏکڻ ۾ فرانس، اوڀر ۾ جرمني ۽ اولهه ۾ سمنڊ اٿس. گاديءَ جو هنڌ بروسیلز آهي. ستن صوبن تي مشتمل هن ملڪ جي سرڪاري ٻولي ”فليمش“ آهي. جڏهن ته ٻين ٻولين ۾ فرينچ ۽ جرمن کي ڄڻ ٻئي نمبر تي حيثيت حاصل آهي. سرڪاري مذهب ”عيسائيت“ ۽ سڪو ”بيلجين فرئنڪ“ اٿس.

هن جو ڏکڻ اوڀر وارو حصو پهاڙن تي مشتمل آهي، باقي حصو سرسبز آهي، جنهن ۾ ندين ۽ واهن جو ڄار پکڙيل آهي. اتر طرف کان ڊگهي سامونڊي پٽي هجڻ ڪري، سڄو سال موسم خوشگوار رهي ٿي. ’والونس‘ (Wallons) ۽ فليمنگس ۾ اندروني جهيڙي سبب ڪيتريون ئي حڪومتون تبديل ٿينديون رهيون ۽ نتيجي ۾ 1989ع جي آئين موجب بيلجيم، فلئنڊرس، والونيا ۽ برسلز جي خودمختيار رياستن ۾ تقسيم ٿي ويو. 1993ع ڌاري آئين ۾ ترميم ڪري مختلف رياستن کي وفاق جي ماتحت ڪيو ويو. بيلجيم ۾ هن وقت شهنشاهي نظام آهي. سينيٽ ۽ چيمبر جا ميمبر شهنشاهه جي ماتحت هوندا آهن. معيشت جو دارومدار صنعت ۽ زراعت تي آهي. هتي ڪڻڪ، پٽاٽا، ڪمند ۽ ٻيا فصل جام ٿين ٿا. ترقي يافته ملڪن ۾ شمار ڪيو ويندو آهي. بيلجيم ۾ ڌاڳي، شيشي، دوائن ۽ پئٽرول صاف ڪرڻ جا ڪارخانا تمام گهڻا آهن. بيلجئم ۾ هيرن تراشڻ جو ڪم پڻ ٿيندو آهي ۽ بيلجئم جا تراشيل هيرا گهڻا مشهور آهن. سنڌ ۾ وڏ گهراڻيون عورتون اهي ڳهن ۾ جڙائي پائينديون آهن. هن وقت، هيءُ ملڪ يورپ ۾ واپار جو وڏو مرڪز آهي. هتي ڪيترين ئي بين الاقوامي تنظيمن جا هيڊڪوارٽر پڻ آهن.[12]


Belgium,[upper-alpha 1] officially the Kingdom of Belgium,[upper-alpha 2] is a country in Northwestern Europe. The country is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the south, and the North Sea to the west. It covers an area of 30٬689 km2 (11٬849 sq mi)[4][13] and has a population of more than 11.5 million,[14] making it the 22nd most densely populated country in the world and the 6th most densely populated country in Europe, with a density of 376 /km2 (970 /sq mi). Belgium is part of an area known as the Low Countries, historically a somewhat larger region than the Benelux group of states, as it also included parts of northern France. The capital and largest metropolitan region is Brussels;[upper-alpha 3] other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi, Liège, Bruges, Namur, and Leuven.

Belgium is a sovereign state and a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organization is complex and is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds. It is divided into three highly autonomous regions:[16] the Flemish Region (Flanders) in the north, the Walloon Region (Wallonia) in the south, and the Brussels-Capital Region.[17] Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is also home to two main linguistic communities: the Flemish Community, which constitutes about 60 percent of the population, and the French Community, which constitutes about 40 percent of the population. A small German-speaking Community, making up around one percent of the population, exists in the East Cantons. The Brussels-Capital Region is officially bilingual in French and Dutch,[18] although French is the majority language and lingua franca.[19] Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.

Since the Middle Ages, Belgium's central location has meant that the area has been relatively prosperous, connected commercially and politically to its bigger neighbours. The country as it exists today was established following the 1830 Belgian Revolution, when it seceded from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, which had incorporated the Southern Netherlands (which comprised most of modern-day Belgium) after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The name chosen for the new state is derived from the Latin word Belgium, used in Julius Caesar's "Gallic Wars", to describe a nearby region in the period around 55 BCE.[20] Belgium has also been the battleground of European powers, earning the moniker "the Battlefield of Europe",[21] a reputation reinforced in the 20th century by both world wars.

Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution,[22][23] and during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.[24] Between 1885 and 1908, the Congo Free State, which was privately owned by King Leopold II of Belgium, was characterized by widespread atrocities and disease; amid public outcry in Europe, Belgium annexed the territory as a colony.[25] The Belgian colonies gained independence between 1960 and 1962.[26] The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching state reforms, resulting in the transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement between 1970 and 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions have persisted: there is particularly significant separatist sentiment among the Flemish, language laws such as the municipalities with language facilities have been the source of much controversy,[27] and the government formation period following the 2010 federal election set the world record at 589 days.[28] Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders, which boomed after the Second World War.[29][30]

Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. The country is one of the six founding members of the European Union, and its capital, Brussels, is also the de facto capital of the European Union itself, hosting the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, and the European Council, as well as one of two seats of the European Parliament (the other being Strasbourg). Belgium is also a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, and WTO, and a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels also hosts the headquarters of many major international organizations, such as NATO.[upper-alpha 4] بيلجيم جو جھنڊو

بيلجيم جي سرڪاري مهر
بيلجيم جو نقشو

هن ملڪ جو سرڪاري نالو بيلجيم جي شهنشاهيت (Kingdom of Belgium) آهي. اتر ۾ نيدر لئنڊس، ڏکڻ ۾ فرانس، اوڀر ۾ جرمني ۽ اولهه ۾ سمنڊ اٿس. گاديءَ جو هنڌ برسلز آهي. ستن صوبن تي مشتمل هن ملڪ جي سرڪاري ٻولي ”فليمش“ آهي. جڏهن ته ٻين ٻولين ۾ فرينچ ۽ جرمن کي ڄڻ ٻئي نمبر تي حيثيت حاصل آهي. سرڪاري مذهب ”عيسائيت“ ۽ سڪو ”بيلجين فرئنڪ“ اٿس. هن جو ڏکڻ اوڀر وارو حصو پهاڙن تي مشتمل آهي، باقي حصو سرسبز آهي، جنهن ۾ ندين ۽ واهن جو ڄار پکڙيل آهي. اتر طرف کان ڊگهي سامونڊي پٽي هجڻ ڪري، سڄو سال موسم خوشگوار رهي ٿي. ’والونس‘ (Wallons) ۽ فليمنگس ۾ اندروني جهيڙي سبب ڪيتريون ئي حڪومتون تبديل ٿينديون رهيون ۽ نتيجي ۾ 1989ع جي آئين موجب بيلجيم، فلئنڊرس، والونيا ۽ برسلز جي خودمختيار رياستن ۾ تقسيم ٿي ويو. 1993ع ڌاري آئين ۾ ترميم ڪري مختلف رياستن کي وفاق جي ماتحت ڪيو ويو. بيلجيم ۾ هن وقت شهنشاهي نظام آهي. سينيٽ ۽ چيمبر جا ميمبر شهنشاهه جي ماتحت هوندا آهن. معيشت جو دارومدار صنعت ۽ زراعت تي آهي. هتي ڪڻڪ، پٽاٽا، ڪمند ۽ ٻيا فصل جام ٿين ٿا. ترقي يافته ملڪن ۾ شمار ڪيو ويندو آهي. بيلجيم ۾ ڌاڳي، شيشي، دوائن ۽ پئٽرول صاف ڪرڻ جا ڪارخانا تمام گهڻا آهن. بيلجئم ۾ هيرن تراشڻ جو ڪم پڻ ٿيندو آهي ۽ بيلجئم جا تراشيل هيرا گهڻا مشهور آهن. سنڌ ۾ وڏ گهراڻيون عورتون اهي ڳهن ۾ جڙائي پائينديون آهن. هن وقت، هيءُ ملڪ يورپ ۾ واپار جو وڏو مرڪز آهي. هتي ڪيترين ئي بين الاقوامي تنظيمن جا هيڊڪوارٽر پڻ آهن.[31]

  1. حوالي جي چڪ: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Demographics2020
  2. "National Profiles | World Religion". 
  3. "Government type: Belgium". The World Factbook. CIA. وقت 7 February 2012 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 19 December 2011.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  4. 4.0 4.1 "be.STAT". Bestat.statbel.fgov.be. 
  5. "Belgium country profile". BBC News. حاصل ڪيل 17 October 2023. 
  6. "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). حاصل ڪيل 11 October 2020. 
  7. "Structure of the Population". Statbel. حاصل ڪيل 8 June 2023. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Belgium)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. حاصل ڪيل 11 October 2023. 
  9. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. حاصل ڪيل 28 June 2023. 
  10. "Human Development Report 2023/24" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. صفحو. 288. حاصل ڪيل 13 March 2024. 
  11. The Belgian Constitution. Brussels, Belgium: Belgian House of Representatives. May 2014. p. 63. http://www.const-court.be/en/basic_text/belgian_constitution.pdf. Retrieved 10 September 2015. 
  12. http://encyclopediasindhiana.org/article.php?Dflt=بيلجيم
  13. "Belgium country profile". BBC News. حاصل ڪيل 17 October 2023. 
  14. "Structuur van de bevolking | Statbel". statbel.fgov.be. حاصل ڪيل 3 June 2022. 
  15. "Statbel the Belgian statistics office". وقت 16 May 2021 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 6 January 2015.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  16. Pateman, Robert and Elliott, Mark (2006). [[[:سانچو:GBurl]] Belgium]. Benchmark Books. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7614-2059-0
  17. The Belgian Constitution. Brussels, Belgium: Belgian House of Representatives. May 2014. p. 5. http://www.const-court.be/en/basic_text/belgian_constitution.pdf. Retrieved 10 September 2015. "Article 3: Belgium comprises three Regions: the Flemish Region, the Walloon Region and the Brussels Region. Article 4: Belgium comprises four linguistic regions: the Dutch-speaking region, the French-speaking region, the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital and the German-speaking region." 
  18. Janssens, Rudi (2008). "Language use in Brussels and the position of Dutch" (en ۾). Brussels Studies (Brussels Studies [Online]). doi:10.4000/brussels.520. https://journals.openedition.org/brussels/520. Retrieved 17 July 2018. 
  19. Leclerc, Jacques. "Belgique • België • Belgien—Région de Bruxelles-Capitale • Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest". L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde (ٻولي ۾ French). Host: Trésor de la langue française au Québec (TLFQ), Université Laval, Quebec. وقت 9 June 2007 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 18 June 2007. C'est une région officiellement bilingue formant au centre du pays une enclave dans la province du Brabant flamand (Vlaams Brabant)  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
    *"About Belgium". Belgian Federal Public Service (ministry) / Embassy of Belgium in the Republic of Korea. وقت 2 October 2008 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 21 June 2007. the Brussels-Capital Region is an enclave of 162 km2 within the Flemish region.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
    *"Flanders (administrative region)". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft. وقت 2009-06-15 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 21 June 2007. The capital of Belgium, Brussels, is an enclave within Flanders.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
    *McMillan, Eric. "The FIT Invasions of Mons" (PDF). Capital translator, Newsletter of the NCATA, Vol. 21, No. 7, p. 1. National Capital Area Chapter of the American Translators Association (NCATA). وقت 26 June 2007 تي اصل (PDF) کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 21 June 2007. The country is divided into three autonomous regions: Dutch-speaking Flanders in the north, mostly French-speaking Brussels in the center as an enclave within Flanders and French-speaking Wallonia in the south, including the German-speaking Cantons de l'Est.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
    *Van de Walle, Steven. "Language Facilities in the Brussels Periphery". KULeuven—Leuvens Universitair Dienstencentrum voor Informatica en Telematica. وقت 31 October 2009 تي اصل (PDF) کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 21 June 2007. Brussels is a kind of enclave within Flanders—it has no direct link with Wallonia.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  20. C. Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico, book 8, chapter 46.
  21. Haß, Torsten (17 February 2003) (de ۾). Rezension zu (Review of) Cook, Bernard: Belgium. A History. FH-Zeitung (journal of the Fachhochschule). ISBN 978-0-8204-5824-3. http://www.fh-kehl.de/zeitung/rezensionen/2003/cook,belgium.htm. Retrieved 24 May 2007. "die Bezeichnung Belgiens als "the cockpit of Europe" (James Howell, 1640), die damals noch auf eine kriegerische Hahnenkampf-Arena hindeutete" —The book reviewer, Haß, attributes the expression in English to James Howell in 1640. Howell's original phrase "the cockpit of Christendom" became modified afterwards, as shown by:
    *Carmont, John. "The Hydra No.1 New Series (November 1917)—Arras And Captain Satan". War Poets Collection. Napier University's Business School. وقت 11 May 2008 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 24 May 2007.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)—and as such coined for Belgium:
    *Wood, James. "Nuttall Encyclopaedia of General Knowledge—Cockpit of Europe". وقت 9 August 2011 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 24 May 2007. Cockpit of Europe, Belgium, as the scene of so many battles between the Powers of Europe.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد) (See also The Nuttall Encyclopaedia)
  22. Fitzmaurice, John. "New Order? International models of peace and reconciliation—Diversity and civil society". Democratic Dialogue Northern Ireland's first think tank, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. وقت 13 May 2011 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 12 August 2007.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  23. "Belgium country profile". EUbusiness, Richmond, UK. وقت 7 October 2009 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 12 August 2007.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  24. Karl, Farah; Stoneking, James. "Chapter 27. The Age of Imperialism (Section 2. The Partition of Africa)" (PDF). World History II. Appomattox Regional Governor's School (History Department), Petersburg, Virginia, US. وقت 25 September 2007 تي اصل (PDF) کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 16 August 2007.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  25. Gerdziunas, Benas (17 October 2017). "Belgium's genocidal colonial legacy haunts the country's future". https://www.independent.co.uk/news/long_reads/belgium-s-genocidal-colonial-legacy-haunts-country-s-future-a7984191.html. Retrieved 22 June 2021. 
  26. Braeckman, Colette. "Belgium's role in Rwandan genocide". Le Monde Diplomatique. حاصل ڪيل 20 January 2022. 
  27. Buoyant Brussels. "Bilingual island in Flanders". UCL. وقت 24 May 2016 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 5 June 2016.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  28. "Belgian government sworn in, ending 18-month crisis". Expatica. 6 December 2011. http://www.expatica.com/be/news/belgian-news/belgian-government-sworn-in-ending-18-month-crisis_193630.html. 
  29. Robinson, Duncan (3 November 2015). "Belgium: A nation divided by more than two languages". https://www.ft.com/content/c45dfbd4-7349-11e5-bdb1-e6e4767162cc. 
  30. ""Werkgelegenheid en werkloosheid"". حاصل ڪيل 9 August 2023. 
  31. http://encyclopediasindhiana.org/article.php?Dflt=بيلجيم


حوالي جي چڪ: "upper-alpha" نالي جي حوالن جي لاءِ ٽيگ <ref> آهن، پر لاڳاپيل ٽيگ <references group="upper-alpha"/> نہ مليو