مواد ڏانھن ٽپ ڏيو

چيڪ جمهوريا

کليل ڄاڻ چيڪلي، وڪيپيڊيا مان
(جمهوريه چيڪ کان چوريل)
Czech Republic

Česká republika  (ٻولي؟)
Flag of Czechia
{{{coat_alt}}}
جھنڊو Coat of arms
شُعار: '
Pravda vítězí  (ٻولي؟)
"Truth prevails"
ترانو: 
Kde domov můj  (سانچو:ISO 639 name cs)
"Where My Home Is"
مڪانيت the  چيڪ جمهوريا  (dark green)

– نقشو Europe  (green & dark gray)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

گادي جو هنڌ Prague
50°05′N 14°28′E / 50.083°N 14.467°E / 50.083; 14.467
سڀ کان وڏو شهر capital
Official language Czech[1]
نسلي گروھ (2021)
مذهب (2021)
مقامي آبادي Czech
حڪومت Unitary parliamentary republic
Petr Pavel
Petr Fiala
مقننه Parliament
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Establishment
ت. 870
1198
28 October 1918
1 January 1993
پکيڙ
• جملي
78٬871 km2 (30٬452 sq mi)[2] (115th)
• پاڻي (%)
2.16 (as of 2022)[2]
آبادي
• 2023 اندازو
سانچو:IncreaseNeutral 10,900,555[3] (85th)
• 2021 مردم شماري
سانچو:IncreaseNeutral 10,524,167[4]
•  گھاٽائي
133 /km2 (344.5 /sq mi) (91st)
جِي ڊي پي (مساوي قوت خريد ) 2023 لڳ ڀڳ
• ڪل
$539.318 billion[5] (46th)
• في سيڪڙو
$49,025[5] (39th)
جِي. ڊي. پي  (رڳو نالي ۾ ) 2023 لڳ ڀڳ
• ڪل
$335.243 billion[5] (47th)

جمهوريہ چيڪ (چيڪي ٻولي:Česka republika)[11] يورپ جو هڪ وڏو ملڪ آهي جنهن جي گاديءَ جو هنڌ پراگ شهر آهي. سال 2011ع جي مردمشماريءَ مطابق هن ملڪ جي آبادي هڪ ڪروڙ، 4 لک، 36 هزار 560 آهي. هن ملڪ جي پکيڙ 78،866 چورس ڪلوميٽر آهي.



known as Czechia,[lower-alpha 3][12] 

is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Historically known as Bohemia,[13] it is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to the southeast.[14] The Czech Republic has a hilly landscape that covers an area of 78٬871 ڪلوميٽرزچورس (30٬452 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental and oceanic climate. The capital and largest city is Prague; other major cities and urban areas include Brno, Ostrava, Plzeň and Liberec.

The Duchy of Bohemia was founded in the late 9th century under Great Moravia. It was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire in 1002 and became a kingdom in 1198.[15][16] Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, all of the Crown lands of Bohemia were gradually integrated into the Habsburg monarchy. Nearly a hundred years later, the Protestant Bohemian Revolt led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Crown lands became part of the Austrian Empire.

In the 19th century, the Czech lands became more industrialized, and in 1918 most of it became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic following the collapse of Austria-Hungary after World War I.[17] Czechoslovakia was the only country in Central and Eastern Europe to remain a parliamentary democracy during the entirety of the interwar period.[18] After the Munich Agreement in 1938, Nazi Germany systematically took control over the Czech lands.

Czechoslovakia was restored in 1945 and three years later became an Eastern Bloc communist state following a coup d'état in 1948. Attempts to liberalize the government and economy were suppressed by a Soviet-led invasion of the country during the Prague Spring in 1968. In November 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended communist rule in the country and restored democracy. On 31 December 1992, Czechoslovakia was peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

The Czech Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced, high-income social market economy. It is a welfare state with a European social model, universal health care and free-tuition university education. It ranks 32nd in the Human Development Index. The Czech Republic is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Union, the OECD, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group.


Česká republika
جمهوريہ چيڪ
گاديءَ جو هنڌ پراگ
ملڪ جي پکيڙ 78866 km²
آبادي 10،538،275

حوالا[سنواريو]

  1. "Czech language". Czech Republic – Official website. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic. وقت 6 November 2011 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 14 November 2011.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Land use (as at 31 December)". Public database. Czech Statistical Office. حاصل ڪيل 11 May 2023. 
  3. "Population – CZSO". Czech Statistical Office. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Národnost". Census 2021 (ٻولي ۾ Czech). Czech Statistical Office. وقت 15 January 2022 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 13 January 2022.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Czechia)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. حاصل ڪيل 11 October 2023. 
  6. Citizens belonging to minorities, which traditionally and on a long-term basis live within the territory of the Czech Republic, enjoy the right to use their language in communication with authorities and in courts of law (for the list of recognized minorities see National Minorities Policy of the Government of the Czech Republic آرڪائيو ڪيا ويا 7 June 2012 حوالو موجود آهي وي بيڪ مشين., Belarusian and Vietnamese since 4 July 2013, see Česko má nové oficiální národnostní menšiny. Vietnamce a Bělorusy آرڪائيو ڪيا ويا 8 July 2013 حوالو موجود آهي وي بيڪ مشين.). Article 25 of the Czech Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms ensures the right of the national and ethnic minorities to education and communication with the authorities in their own language. Act No. 500/2004 Coll. (The Administrative Rule) in its paragraph 16 (4) (Procedural Language) ensures that a citizen of the Czech Republic who belongs to a national or an ethnic minority, which traditionally and on a long-term basis lives within the territory of the Czech Republic, has the right to address an administrative agency and proceed before it in the language of the minority. If the administrative agency has no employee with knowledge of the language, the agency is bound to obtain a translator at the agency's own expense. According to Act No. 273/2001 (Concerning the Rights of Members of Minorities) paragraph 9 (The right to use language of a national minority in dealing with authorities and in front of the courts of law) the same also applies to members of national minorities in the courts of law.
  7. The Slovak language may be considered an official language in the Czech Republic under certain circumstances, as defined by several laws – e.g. law 500/2004, 337/1992. Source: http://portal.gov.cz آرڪائيو ڪيا ويا 10 April 2005 حوالو موجود آهي وي بيڪ مشين.. Cited: "Například Správní řád (zákon č. 500/2004 Sb.) stanovuje: "V řízení se jedná a písemnosti se vyhotovují v českém jazyce. Účastníci řízení mohou jednat a písemnosti mohou být předkládány i v jazyce slovenském ..." (§ 16, odstavec 1). Zákon o správě daní a poplatků (337/1992 Sb.) "Úřední jazyk: Před správcem daně se jedná v jazyce českém nebo slovenském. Veškerá písemná podání se předkládají v češtině nebo slovenštině ..." (§ 3, odstavec 1). http://portal.gov.cz
  8. "Náboženská víra". Census 2021 (ٻولي ۾ Czech). Czech Statistical Office. وقت 22 January 2022 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 13 January 2022.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  9. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. وقت 9 October 2020 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 21 June 2022.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  10. "Human Development Report 2023/24" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. حاصل ڪيل 13 March 2024. 
  11. "Publications Office — Interinstitutional style guide — 7.1. Countries — 7.1.1. Designations and abbreviations to use". Publications Office. وقت 12 April 2023 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 13 October 2023.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  12. "the Czech Republic". The United Nations Terminology Database. وقت 16 June 2023 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 28 November 2023.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  13. Šitler, Jiří. "From Bohemia to Czechia". Czech Radio. حاصل ڪيل 1 June 2021. 
  14. "Information about the Czech Republic". Czech Foreign Ministry. وقت 3 April 2016 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 25 March 2016.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  15. Mlsna, Petr; Šlehofer, F.; Urban, D. "The Path of Czech Constitutionality" (PDF). 1st edition (ٻولي ۾ Czech and English). Praha: Úřad Vlády České Republiky (The Office of the Government of the Czech Republic). صفحا. 10–11. وقت 16 January 2013 تي اصل (PDF) کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 31 October 2012.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  16. Čumlivski, Denko. "800 let Zlaté buly sicilské" (ٻولي ۾ Czech). National Archives of the Czech Republic (Národní Archiv České Republiky). وقت 28 November 2012 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 31 October 2012.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  17. Dijk, Ruud van; Gray, William Glenn; Savranskaya, Svetlana; Suri, Jeremi; Zhai, Qiang (2013). Encyclopedia of the Cold War. Routledge. p. 76. ISBN 978-1135923112. https://books.google.com/books?id=QgX0bQ3Enj4C&pg=PA76. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  18. Timothy Garton Ash The Uses of Adversity Granta Books, 1991 ISBN 0-14-014038-7 p. 60


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