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The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols which do not resemble any Latin letter are placed at the end.

Symbol Examples Description
A
[[[open front unrounded vowel|a]]] German Mann For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow. Found in some dialects of English in cat or father.
[[[open front unrounded vowel|aː]]] German Aachen, French gare Long [a].
[[[open central unrounded vowel|ä]]] Mandarin 他 tā, American English ah, Spanish casa, French patte
[[[near-open central vowel|ɐ]]] RP cut, German Kaiserslautern (In transcriptions of English, [ɐ] is usually written ⟨ʌ⟩.)
[[[open back unrounded vowel|ɑ]]] Finnish Linna, Dutch bad
[[[open back unrounded vowel|ɑː]]] RP father, French pâte Long [ɑ].
[[[nasal vowel|ɑ̃]]] (About this sound ٻڌو) French Caen, sans, temps Nasalized [ɑ].
[[[open back rounded vowel|ɒ]]] RP cot Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded.
[[[open-mid back unrounded vowel|ʌ]]] American English cut Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When ⟨ʌ⟩ is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].)
[[[near-open front unrounded vowel|æ]]] RP cat
B
[[[voiced bilabial stop|b]]] English babble
[[[voiced bilabial implosive|ɓ]]] Swahili bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp. See implosive consonants.
[[[voiced bilabial fricative|β]]] Spanish la Bamba, Kinyarwanda abana "children" Like [b], but with the lips not quite touching.
[[[bilabial trill|ʙ]]] Nias simbi [siʙi] "lower jaw" Sputtering.
C
[[[voiceless palatal stop#Palatal or alveolo-palatal|c]]] Turkish kebap "kebab", Czech stín "shadow", Romanian cameră "room"Greek και "and" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like Hindi.
[[[Voiceless palatal fricative#Palatal|ç]]] German Ich More of a y-coloration (more palatal) than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
[[[voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative|ɕ]]] Mandarin 西安 Xi'an, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she.
[[[open-mid back rounded vowel|ɔ]]] see under O
D
[[[voiced dental and alveolar stops#Alveolar|d]]] English dad
[[[voiced alveolar implosive|ɗ]]] Swahili Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp.
[[[voiced retroflex stop|ɖ]]] American English harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[[[voiced dental fricative|ð]]] English the, bathe
[[[Voiced alveolar affricate|dz]]] English adds, Italian zero
[[[voiced palato-alveolar affricate|dʒ]]] English judge
[[[voiced alveolo-palatal affricate|dʑ]]] Polish niewiedź "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound.
[[[voiced retroflex affricate|dʐ]]] Polish em "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
E
[[[close-mid front unrounded vowel|e]]] Spanish fe; French clé
[[[close-mid front unrounded vowel|eː]]] German Klee Long [e]. Similar to English hey, before the y sets in.
[[[close-mid central unrounded vowel|ɘ]]] Australian English bird
[[[mid central vowel|ə]]] English above, Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" (Only occurs in English when not stressed.)
[[[r-colored vowel|ɚ]]] American English runner
[[[open-mid front unrounded vowel|ɛ]]] English bet
[[[nasal vowel|ɛ̃]]] (About this sound ٻڌو) French Saint-Étienne, vin, main Nasalized [ɛ].
[[[open-mid central unrounded vowel|ɜ]]] RP bird (long)
[[[r-colored vowel|ɝ]]] American English bird
F
[[[voiceless labiodental fricative|f]]] English fun
[[[voiced palatal stop#Palatal or alveolo-palatal|ɟ]]] see under J
[[[voiced palatal implosive|ʄ]]] see under J
G
[[[voiced velar stop|ɡ]]] English gag (Should look like Opentail g.svg. No different from a Latin "g")
[[[voiced velar implosive|ɠ]]] Swahili Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp.
[[[voiced uvular stop|ɢ]]] Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in Persian and some Arabic dialects for /q/, as in Muammar Gaddafi.
[[[voiced postalveolar fricative|ʒ]]] see under Z English beige.
H
[[[voiceless glottal fricative|h]]] American English house
[[[voiced glottal fricative|ɦ]]] English ahead, when said quickly.
[[[aspirated consonant|ʰ]]] The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to French or Spanish [t].
[[[voiceless pharyngeal fricative|ħ]]] Arabic Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Language/data' not found. Muhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger.
[[[labialized palatal approximant|ɥ]]] see under Y
[[[voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives|ɮ]]] see under L
I
[[[close front unrounded vowel|i]]] French ville, Spanish Valladolid
[[[close front unrounded vowel|iː]]] English sea Long [i].
[[[near-close front unrounded vowel|ɪ]]] English sit
[[[close central unrounded vowel|ɨ]]] Russian ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses.
J
[[[Palatal approximant#Palatal|j]]] English yes, hallelujah, German Junge
[[[palatalization (phonetics)|ʲ]]] Russian Ленин [ˈlʲenʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like.
[[[Voiced palatal fricative#Palatal|ʝ]]] Spanish cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger.
[[[voiced palatal stop#Palatal or alveolo-palatal|ɟ]]] Turkish gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like Hindi.
[[[voiced palatal implosive|ʄ]]] Swahili jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp.
K
[[[voiceless velar stop|k]]] English kick, skip
L
[[[dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants|l]]] English leaf
[[[dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants#Velarized alveolar lateral approximant|ɫ]]] English wool
Russian малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small"
"Dark" el.
[[[voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives|ɬ]]] Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey"
Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit"
By touching roof of mouth with tongue and giving a quick breath out. Found in Welsh placenames like Llangollen and Llanelli and Nelson Mandela's Xhosa name Rolihlahla.
[[[retroflex lateral approximant|ɭ]]] Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[[[dental and alveolar lateral flaps|ɺ]]] A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together.
[[[voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives|ɮ]]] Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together.
M
[[[bilabial nasal|m]]] English mime
[[[labiodental nasal|ɱ]]] English symphony Like [m], but lips touch teeth as they do in [f].
[[[close back unrounded vowel|ɯ]]] see under W
[[[voiceless labialized velar approximant|ʍ]]] see under W
N
[[[Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals#Alveolar|n]]] English nun
[[[velar nasal|ŋ]]] English sing, Māori nga
[[[Palatal nasal#Palatal or alveolo-palatal|ɲ]]] Spanish Peña, French champagne Rather like English canyon (/nj/ said quickly).
[[[retroflex nasal|ɳ]]] Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳ] Varuna Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[[[uvular nasal|ɴ]]] Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat.
O
[[[close-mid back rounded vowel|o]]] Spanish no, French eau
[[[close-mid back rounded vowel|oː]]] German Boden, French Vosges Long [o]. Somewhat reminiscent of English no.
[[[open-mid back rounded vowel|ɔ]]] German Oldenburg, French Garonne
[[[open-mid back rounded vowel|ɔː]]] RP law, French Limoges Long [ɔ].
[[[nasal vowel|ɔ̃]]] (About this sound ٻڌو) French Lyon, son Nasalized [ɔ].
[[[close-mid front rounded vowel|ø]]] French feu, bœufs Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o].
[[[close-mid front rounded vowel|øː]]] German Goethe, French Dle, neutre Long [ø].
[[[close-mid central rounded vowel|ɵ]]] Dutch hut, French je, Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front. The Dutch vowel is often transcribed with ⟨ʏ⟩ or ⟨œ⟩, whereas the French vowel is typically transcribed with ⟨ə⟩.
[[[open-mid front rounded vowel|œ]]] French bœuf, seul, German Göttingen Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ].
[[[open-mid front rounded vowel|œː]]] French œuvre, heure Long [œ].
[[[nasal vowel|œ̃]]] (About this sound ٻڌو) French brun, parfum Nasalized [œ].
[[[open front rounded vowel|ɶ]]]
[[[voiceless dental fricative|θ]]] see under Others
[[[voiceless bilabial fricative|ɸ]]] see under Others
P
[[[voiceless bilabial stop|p]]] English pip
Q
[[[voiceless uvular stop|q]]] Arabic Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Language/data' not found. Qur’ān Like [k], but further back, in the throat.
R
[[[dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills|r]]] Spanish perro, Scots borrow "Rolled R". (Often used for other rhotics, such as English [ɹ], when there's no ambiguity.)
[[[dental and alveolar flaps|ɾ]]] Spanish pero, Tagalog daliri, Malay kabar, American English kitty/kiddie "Flapped R".
[[[uvular trill|ʀ]]] Dutch rood and German rot (some speakers) A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French.
[[[retroflex flap|ɽ]]] Hindi साड़ी [sɑːɽiː] "sari" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back.
[[[alveolar and postalveolar approximants|ɹ]]] RP borrow
[[[retroflex approximant|ɻ]]] Mandarin 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", American English borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
[[[voiced uvular fricative|ʁ]]] French Paris, German Riemann Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
S
[[[voiceless alveolar fricative#Voiceless alveolar sibilant|s]]] English sass
[[[voiceless postalveolar fricative|ʃ]]] English shoe
[[[voiceless retroflex fricative|ʂ]]] Mandarin 少林 (Shàolín), Russian Пушкин (Pushkin) Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
T
[[[voiceless dental and alveolar stops#Alveolar|t]]] English tot, stop
[[[voiceless retroflex stop|ʈ]]] Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[[[voiceless alveolar affricate|ts]]] English cats, Russian царь tsar
[[[voiceless palato-alveolar affricate|tʃ]]] English church
[[[voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate|tɕ]]] Mandarin 北京 About this sound Běijīng, Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound.
[[[voiceless retroflex affricate|tʂ]]] Mandarin 真正 zhēnzhèng, Polish czas Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
U
[[[close back rounded vowel|u]]] French vous "you"
[[[close back rounded vowel|uː]]] French Rocquencourt, German Schumacher, American English food Long [u].
[[[near-close back rounded vowel|ʊ]]] English foot, German Bundesrepublik
[[[close central rounded vowel|ʉ]]] Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
[[[labialized palatal approximant|ɥ]]] see under Y
[[[close back unrounded vowel|ɯ]]] see under W
V
[[[voiced labiodental fricative|v]]] English verve
[[[labiodental approximant|ʋ]]] Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some Germans and Russians for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r.
[[[close-mid back unrounded vowel|ɤ]]] see under Y
[[[voiced velar fricative|ɣ]]] see under Y
[[[open-mid back unrounded vowel|ʌ]]] see under A
W
[[[voiced labio-velar approximant|w]]] English wow
[[[labialization|ʷ]]] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, as in English rain
[[[voiceless labialized velar approximant|ʍ]]] what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together
[[[close back unrounded vowel|ɯ]]] Turkish kayık "caïque", Scottish Gaelic gaol Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ].
[[[voiced velar approximant|ɰ]]] Spanish agua
X
[[[voiceless velar fricative|x]]] Scottish English loch, German Bach, Russian хороший [xɐˈroʂɨj] "good", Spanish joven between [k] and [h]
[[[voiceless uvular fricative|χ]]] northern Standard Dutch Scheveningen, Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back, in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have [χ] for [x].
Y
[[[close front rounded vowel|y]]] French rue Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
[[[close front rounded vowel|yː]]] German Bülow, French sûr Long [y].
[[[near-close front rounded vowel|ʏ]]] German Düsseldorf Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ].
[[[voiced velar fricative|ɣ]]] Arabic Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Language/data' not found. ghālī and Swahili ghali "expensive", Spanish suegro Sounds rather like French [ʁ] or between [ɡ] and [h].
[[[close-mid back unrounded vowel|ɤ]]] Mandarin 河南 Hénán, Scottish Gaelic taigh Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ].
[[[palatal lateral approximant|ʎ]]] Italian tagliatelle Like [l], but more y-like. Rather like English volume.
[[[labialized palatal approximant|ɥ]]] French lui Like [j] and [w] said together.
Z
[[[voiced alveolar fricative#Voiced alveolar sibilant|z]]] English zoo
[[[voiced postalveolar fricative|ʒ]]] English vision, French journal
[[[voiced alveolo-palatal fricative|ʑ]]] old-styled Russian позже [ˈpoʑːe] "later", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey.
[[[voiced retroflex fricative|ʐ]]] Russian жир "fat" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[[[voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives|ɮ]]] see under L
Others
[[[voiceless dental fricative|θ]]] English thigh, bath
[[[voiceless bilabial fricative|ɸ]]] Japanese 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] Fuji, Māori [ˌɸaːɾeːˈnuiː] wharenui Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching
[[[glottal stop|ʔ]]] English uh-oh, Hawaii, German die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɪnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [əˈʔæpl̩].
[[[voiced pharyngeal fricative|ʕ]]] Arabic Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Language/data' not found. ʻarabī "Arabic" A light sound deep in the throat.
[[[tenuis dental click|ǀ]]] English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǀ], [ɡǀ], [ŋǀ]. The Zimbabwean MP Ncube has this click in his name, as did Cetshwayo.
[[[tenuis alveolar lateral click|ǁ]]] English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǁ], [ɡǁ], [ŋǁ]. Found in the name of the Xhosa.
[[[tenuis alveolar click|ǃ]]] Zulu iqaqa "polecat" (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǃ], [ɡǃ], [ŋǃ].
[[[tenuis bilabial click|ʘ]]] ǂ’Amkoe ʘoa "two" Like a kissing sound.
[[[tenuis palatal click|ǂ]]] Khoekhoe ǂgā-amǃnâ [ǂààʔám̀ᵑǃã̀ã̀] "to put in the mouth" Like an imitation of a chewing sound.

Marks added to letters[سنواريو]

Several marks can be added above, below, before or after letters. These are here shown on a carrier letter such as the vowel a. A more complete list is given at International Phonetic Alphabet § Diacritics and prosodic notation.

Symbol Example Description
Signs above a letter
[ã] French vin blanc [vɛ̃ blɑ̃] "white wine" A nasal vowel, as with a Texas twang.
[ä] Portuguese vá [vä] "go" A central vowel pronounced with the tongue position in the middle of the mouth; neither forward nor back.
Signs below a letter
[a̯] English cow [kʰaʊ̯], koi [kʰɔɪ̯] This vowel does not form a syllable of its own, but runs into the vowel next to it. (In English, the diacritic is generally left off: [kaʊ].)
[n̥] Sounds like a loud whisper; [n̥] is like a whispered breath through the nose. [l̥] is found in Tibetan Lhasa.
[n̩] English button A consonant without a vowel. (English [n̩] is often transcribed /ən/.)
[d̪] Spanish dos, French deux The tongue touches the teeth more than it does in English.
Signs next to a letter
[kʰ] English come Aspirated consonant, pronounced with a puff of air. Similarly [tʰ pʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tɕʰ].
[k’] Zulu ukuza "come" Like a popped [k], pushed from the throat. Similarly [tʼ pʼ qʼ tʃʼ tsʼ tɬʼ].
[aː] English shh! [ʃː] Long. Often used with English vowels or diphthongs: Mayo /ˈmeːoː/ for [ˈmeɪ̯ɜʊ̯], etc.
[aˑ] RP caught [ˈkʰɔˑt] Semi-long. (Although the vowel is different, this is also longer than cot [ˈkʰɒt].)
[ˈa] pronunciation
[pɹ̥əʊ̯ˌnɐnsiˈeɪʃn̩]
Main stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[ˌa] Weaker stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[.] English courtship [ˈkɔrt.ʃɪp] Syllable break. (this is often redundant and therefore left off)

Issues[سنواريو]

Particularly, the following symbols may be shown improperly depending on your font: