ذمي

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ذمي(انگريزي: Dhimmi ) ھڪ تاريخي لفظ آهي جيڪو اسلامي رياست ۾ انھن غيرمسلم ماڻھن لاء استعمال ٿيندو ھو جن جي حفاظت جي ذميداري رياست جي مٿان ھوندي ھئي.[1][2] لفظ جي معني آهي تحفظ مليل ماڻھو ,[3] غير مسلم شھري کي ان کان ۽ مال جي تحفظ جي عيوض جزيو نالي ٽيڪس ڏيڻي پوندي ھئي جيئن مسلمان شھري زڪوات ڏيندا ھئا[4]. ڪجھ مسلمانن وارين ذميدارين کان ذمي آجا ھوندا ھئا ۽ مسلمانن واريون ڪجھ رعائيتون ۽ آزادي ذمين لاءِ نہ ھيون باقي ٻنھن جا حق ۽ ذميداريون برابر ھيون.[5][6][7] قرآن ۾ ذمي جو ذڪر نائين نمبر سورت جي 29 آيت ۾ آيل آهي پر اھو حڪم انھن لاء ھو جن وٽ اڳ خدا جون آيتون نازل ٿي چڪيون هيون جن ۾ يھودي ۽ عيسائي شامل ھيا. پر بعد ۾ ٻين مذھبن وارن يعني زرتشتي ۽ ھندو مذھب وارن کي بہ ذمي قرار ڏنو ويو[8]. ذمي کي پنھنجي مذھب تي ھلڻ جي بنا روڪ جي آزادي ھئي سواء تڏهن جڏھن سري عام مسلمانن جي جذبات کي مجروح ڪري يا جنھن سان اسلام جي تذليل ٿئي[8].

حوالا[سنواريو]

  1. Juan Eduardo Campo (وڪي نويس.). "dhimmi". Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. صفحا. 194–195. Dhimmis are non-Muslims who live within Islamdom and have a regulated and protected status. ... In the modern period, this term has generally has occasionally been resuscitated, but it is generally obsolete. 
  2. Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi (26 March 2016) (English ۾). The Laws of Islam. Enlight Press. ISBN 978-0994240989. http://almodarresi.com/en/books/pdf/TheLawsofIslam.pdf. Retrieved 22 December 2017. 
  3. "Definition of DHIMMI". www.merriam-webster.com. 
  4. Glenn, H. Patrick (2007). Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press. pp. 218–219. "A Dhimmi is a non-Muslim subject of a state governed in accordance to sharia law. The term connotes an obligation of the state to protect the individual, including the individual's life, property, and freedom of religion and worship, and required loyalty to the empire, and a poll tax known as the jizya, which complemented the Islamic tax paid by the Muslim subjects, called Zakat." 
  5. H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 219.
  6. The French scholar Gustave Le Bon (the author of La civilisation des Arabes) writes "that despite the fact that the incidence of taxation fell more heavily on a Muslim than a non-Muslim, the non-Muslim was free to enjoy equally well with every Muslim all the privileges afforded to the citizens of the state. The only privilege that was reserved for the Muslims was the seat of the caliphate, and this, because of certain religious functions attached to it, which could not naturally be discharged by a non-Muslim." Mun'im Sirry (2014), Scriptural Polemics: The Qur'an and Other Religions, p.179. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199359363.
  7. Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2007). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. HarperOne. p. 204. ISBN 978-0061189036. "According to the dhimma status system, non-Muslims must pay a poll tax in return for Muslim protection and the privilege of living in Muslim territory. Per this system, non-Muslims are exempt from military service, but they are excluded from occupying high positions that involve dealing with high state interests, like being the president or prime minister of the country. In Islamic history, non-Muslims did occupy high positions, especially in matters that related to fiscal policies or tax collection." 
  8. 8.0 8.1 - Encyclopedia of Islam- Juan E. Campo J. Gordon Melton, Series Editor-: Facts On File, Inc. An imprint of Infobase Publishing 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 - pages# 195