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زمرو:dmy تاريخون استعمال Dmy تاريخون استعمال مڪانيت:
Republic of China
|گادي جو هنڌ||
|سڀ کان وڏو subdivision||New Taipei|
|National languages[lower-alpha 2]|
|حڪومت||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|قانون ساز ادارو||Legislative Yuan|
|1 January 1912|
|25 October 1945|
|25 December 1947|
|7 December 1949|
|35٬980 km2 (13٬890 sq mi)|
• 2018 اندازو
• 2010 مردم شماري
|650 /km2 (1٬683.5 /sq mi) ( 17th)|
|جي ڊي پي (مساوي قوت خريد)||2019 اندازو|
• في سيڪڙو
|جي. ڊي. پي (رڳو نالي ۾ )||2019 اندازو|
• في سيڪڙو
|ايڇ ڊي آء (2017)||
انتهائي اعلیٰ · 21st
|ڪرنسي||New Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)|
|معياري وقت||National Standard Time (متناسق عالمی وقت+8)|
|تاریخ جو نمونو|
|ڊرائيونگ جو پاسو||right|
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The island of Taiwan has an area of 35٬808 کلومیٹرمربع (13٬826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. Taipei is the capital and largest metropolitan area. Other major cities include Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan and Taoyuan. With 23.5 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated states, and is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations (UN).
Taiwanese indigenous peoples settled the island of Taiwan around 6,000 years ago. In the 17th century, Dutch rule opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, and ceded to the Empire of Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan on behalf of the World War II Allies. The resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communist Party of China and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands. In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization called the "Taiwan Miracle". In the 1980s and early 1990s, the ROC changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system.
As a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until the PRC replaced it in 1971. The PRC has consistently claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC. Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor; most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. Domestically, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting Taiwanese identity, although both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income country with a skilled and educated workforce. Its export-oriented industrial economy is the 21st-largest in the world, with sectors including steel, machinery, electronics and chemicals manufacturing. The state is ranked highly in terms of civil and political liberties, education, health care and human development.[lower-alpha 3]
- "Interior minister reaffirms Taipei is ROC's capital". Taipei Times. 5 December 2013. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2013/12/05/2003578356. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- "Indigenous Languages Development Act". law.moj.gov.tw. حاصل ڪيل 22 May 2019.
- "Hakka Basic Act". law.moj.gov.tw. حاصل ڪيل 22 May 2019.
- law.moj.gov.tw (ٻولي ۾ Chinese) https://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=H0170143. حاصل ڪيل 22 May 2019. Missing or empty
- حوالي جي چڪ: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- "Statistics from Statistical Bureau". National Statistics, Republic of China (Taiwan). حاصل ڪيل 22 September 2018.
- "General Statistical analysis report, Population and Housing Census" (PDF). National Statistics, ROC (Taiwan). وقت 26 December 2016 تي اصل (PDF) کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 26 November 2016.
- "Taiwan Province of China". International Monetary Fund. حاصل ڪيل 30 Jun 2019.
- "Percentage share of disposable income by quintile groups of income recipients and measures of income distribution". stat.gov.tw. حاصل ڪيل 26 June 2019.
- "- Human Development Reports" (PDF). hdr.undp.org.
- "Archived copy" (ٻولي ۾ Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. وقت 11 August 2017 تي اصل (Excel) کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 12 November 2018.
- "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. OCLC 1061292121. حاصل ڪيل 9 December 2018.
- "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN.
- Fell, Dafydd (2018). Government and Politics in Taiwan. London: Routledge. p. 305. ISBN 978-1317285069. https://books.google.com/books?id=i8hHDwAAQBAJ. "Moreover, its status as a vibrant democratic state has earned it huge international sympathy and a generally positive image."
- French, Duncan (2013). Statehood and Self-Determination: Reconciling Tradition and Modernity in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-1107311275. https://books.google.com/books?id=YYogAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA26. "The population on the islands of Formosa and the Pescadores is governed by an effective government to the exclusion of others, but Taiwan is not generally considered a state."
- Albert, Eleanor. "China-Taiwan Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. حاصل ڪيل 30 March 2018.
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) views the island as a province, while in Taiwan—a territory with its own democratically elected government—leading political voices have differing views on the island’s status and relations with the mainland. Some observe the principle that there is "One China" comprising the island and the mainland, but in their eyes this is the Republic of China (ROC) based in Taipei; others advocate for a de jure independent Taiwan.
- Fell, Dafydd (2006). Party Politics in Taiwan. Routledge. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-134-24021-0.
- Achen, Christopher H.; Wang, T. Y. (2017). "The Taiwan Voter: An Introduction". The Taiwan Voter. University of Michigan Press. pp. 1–25. doi:10.3998/mpub.9375036. ISBN 978-0-472-07353-5. pp. 1–2.
- Country and Lending Groups. World Bank. Accessed on 10 July 2018.
- IMF Advanced Economies List. World Economic Outlook, April 2016, p. 148 آرڪائيو ڪيا ويا 21 April 2016 حوالو موجود آهي وي بيڪ مشين.
- "5 mil. Taiwanese hold degrees from higher education institutions".
- Tang, Pei-chun. "Undergraduate degree holders in Taiwan exceed 5 million".
- "Freedom in the World 2019". freedomhouse.org. حاصل ڪيل 2019-02-22.
- Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi (5 November 2008). "The Quality of Life in Taiwan". Social Indicators Research 92 (2): 377–404. doi:10.1007/s11205-008-9353-1. "a second place ranking in the 2000 Economist's world healthcare ranking".
- (PDF) (ٻولي ۾ Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/public/Data/11715541971.pdf. حاصل ڪيل 2 July 2010. Missing or empty
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