↑ 1.01.11.21.31.41.5/b, d, ɡ, ʝ/ are pronounced as fricatives or approximants[β, ð, ɣ, ʝ] in all places except after a pause, /n/, or /m/, or, in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/, after /l/. In the latter environments, they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ] like English b, d, g, j but are fully voiced in all positions, unlike in English. When it is distinct from /ʝ/, /ʎ/ is realized as an approximant [ʎ] in all positions سانچو:Harvcol.
↑ 2.02.12.2Most speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. See yeísmo and سانچو:Harvcoltxt for more information.
↑ 4.04.1The rhotic consonants[[[dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills|r]]] and [[[dental and alveolar flaps|ɾ]]] contrast only word-medially between vowels, where they are usually spelled ⟨rr⟩ and ⟨r⟩, respectively. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution: Word-initially, stem-initially, and after /l, n, s/, only [r] is found; before a consonant or pause, the two are interchangeable but [ɾ] is more common (hence so represented here); elsewhere, only [ɾ] is found. When two rhotics occur consecutively across a word or prefix boundary, they result in one long trill, which may be transcribed as [ɾr]: dar rocas[daɾ ˈrokas], super-rápido[supeɾˈrapiðo]سانچو:Harvcol.
↑In much of Hispanic America and in the southern half of Spain, /s/ in syllable-final positions is either pronounced as [[[voiceless glottal fricative|h]]] or not pronounced at all. In transcriptions linked to this key, however, it is always represented by [s].
↑The letter ⟨x⟩ represents /x/ only in certain proper names like Ximena and some placenames in current or former Mexico (Oaxaca, Texas).
↑The letter ⟨h⟩ represents /x/ only in loanwords; in native words, it is always silent.
↑/ʃ/ is used only in loanwords and certain proper nouns. It is nonexistent in many dialects, being realized as [[[voiceless palato-alveolar affricate|tʃ]]] or [[[voiceless alveolar fricative#Voiceless alveolar sibilant|s]]]; e.g. show[tʃou]~[sou].
↑The semivowels [[[voiced labio-velar approximant|w]]] and [[[Palatal approximant#Palatal|j]]] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with [i] and [u].
↑Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic[ɡ]; e.g. Huila[ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].